Glossary

AF&PA – American Forest and Paper Association.

AGM – Annual General Meeting.

air dry tons (ADT) – Meaning dry solids content of 90% and moisture content of 10%.

biochemicals – Enzymes, hormones, pheromones etc, which either occur naturally or are manufactured to be identical to naturally occurring substances. Biochemicals have many environment-friendly applications, such as natural pesticides that work in non-lethal ways as repellents or by disrupting the mating patterns of the pests.

biofuels – Organic material such as wood, waste and alcohol fuels, as well as gaseous and liquid fuels produced from these feedstocks when they are burned to produce energy.

biomaterials – New developments in wood processing supports the move to a biobased economy that utilises materials that are renewable and biodegradable and that do not compete with food sources.

black liquor – The spent cooking liquor from the pulping process which arises when pulpwood is cooked in a digester thereby removing lignin, hemicellulose and other extractives from the wood to free the cellulose fibres. The resulting black liquor is an aqueous solution of lignin residues, hemicellulose, and the inorganic chemicals used in the pulping process. Black liquor contains slightly more than half of the energy content of the wood fed into the digester.

bleached pulp – Pulp that has been bleached by means of chemical additives to make it suitable for fine paper production.

casting and release paper – Embossed paper used to impart design in polyurethane or polyvinyl chloride plastic films for the production of synthetic leather and other textured surfaces.

CEPI – Confederation of European Paper Industries.

Cham Paper Group Holding AG (CPG) – Speciality paper business acquired by Sappi, which included CPG’s Carmignano and Condino Mills (Italy) and its digital imaging business located in Cham (Switzerland) as well as all brands and know-how.

chemical oxygen demand (COD) – The amount of oxygen required to break down the organic compounds in effluent.

chemical pulp – A generic term for pulp made from woodfibre that has been produced in a chemical process.

CHP – Combined heat and power.

coated mechanical paper – Coated paper made from groundwood pulp which has been produced in a mechanical process, primarily used for magazines, catalogues and advertising material.

coated paper – Papers that contain a layer of coating material on one or both sides. The coating materials, consisting of pigments and binders, act as a filler to improve the printing surface of the paper.

coated woodfree paper – Coated paper made from chemical pulp which is made from woodfibre that has been produced in a chemical process, primarily used for high-end publications and advertising material.

corrugating medium – Paperboard made from chemical and semi-chemical pulp, or waste paper, that is to be converted to a corrugated board by passing it through corrugating cylinders. Corrugating medium between layers of linerboard form the board from which corrugated boxes are produced.

CSI and CSR – Corporate social investment and corporate social responsibility.

CSV – Creating shared value involves developing profitable business strategies that deliver tangible social benefits.

deep eutectic solvents – Systems formed from a eutectic mixture of Lewis or Brønsted acids and bases which can contain a variety of anionic and/or cationic species. They are classified as types of ionic solvents with special properties.

dissolving pulp – Highly purified chemical pulp derived primarily from wood, but also from cotton linters intended primarily for conversion into chemical derivatives of cellulose and used mainly in the manufacture of viscose staple fibre, solvent spin fibre and filament.

dissolving wood pulp – Highly purified chemical pulp derived from wood intended primarily for conversion into chemical derivatives of cellulose and used mainly in the manufacture of viscose staple fibre, solvent spin fibre and filament.

EBITDA excluding special items – Earnings before interest (net finance costs), taxation, depreciation, amortisation and special items.

EIA – Environmental impact assessment.

energy – Is present in many forms such as solar, mechanical, thermal, electrical and chemical. Any source of energy can be tapped to perform work. In power plants, coal is burned and its chemical energy is converted into electrical energy. To generate steam, coal and other fossil fuels are burned, thus converting stored chemical energy into thermal energy.

fibre – Fibre is generally referred to as pulp in the paper industry. Wood is treated chemically or mechanically to separate the fibres during the pulping process.

fine paper – Paper usually produced from chemical pulp for printing and writing purposes and consisting of coated and uncoated paper.

FMCG – Fast-moving consumer goods. Examples include non- durable goods such as packaged foods, beverages, toiletries, over-the-counter medicines and many other consumables.

Forestry SA – Largest forestry organisation representing growers of timber in South Africa.

Forest Stewardship Council® (FSC®) – Is a global, not-for- profit organisation dedicated to the promotion of responsible forest management worlwide. (FSC-C015022)
(www.ic.fsc.org/en)

full-time equivalent employee – The number of total hours worked divided by the maximum number of compensable hours in a full- time schedule as defined by law.

greenhouse gas (GHG) – The GHGs included in the Kyoto Protocol are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride.

hemicellulose sugars – The biorefinery process for second generation hemicellulose sugars involves recovering them from the prehydolysate liquor, and then separating them.

ISO – Developed by the International Standardisation Organisation (ISO), ISO 9000 is a series of standards focused on quality management systems, while the ISO 14001 series is focused on environmental performance and management and the ISO 50001 covers energy management.

JSE Limited – The main securities exchange in South Africa.

kraft paper – Packaging paper (bleached or unbleached) made from kraft pulp.

kraft pulp – Chemical wood pulp produced by digesting wood by means of the sulphate pulping process.

Kyoto Protocol – A document signed by over 160 countries at Kyoto, Japan in December 1997 which commits signatories to reducing their emission of greenhouse gases relative to levels emitted in 1990.

lignosulphonate – Lignosulphonate is a highly soluble lignin derivative and a product of the sulphite pulping process.

linerboard – The grade of paperboard used for the exterior facings of corrugated board. Linerboard is combined with corrugating medium by converters to produce corrugated board used in boxes.

liquor – White liquor is the aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulphide used to extract lignin during kraft pulping. Black liquor is the resultant combination of lignin, water and chemicals.

managed forest – Naturally occurring forests that are harvested commercially.

market pulp – Pulp produced for sale on the open market, as opposed to that produced for own consumption in an integrated mill.

mechanical pulp – Pulp produced by means of the mechanical grinding or refining of wood or woodchips.

nanocellulose – Cellulose is the main component of plant stems, leaves and roots. Traditionally, its main commercial use was in producing paper and textiles. Nanocellulose opens up opportunities for advanced, planet-friendly solutions in place of environmentally harmful products.

natural/indigenous forest – A forest of naturally regenerating native trees.

NBHK – Northern Bleached Hardwood Kraft pulp. One of the varieties of market pulp, produced from hardwood trees (ie birch or aspen) in Scandinavia, Canada and northern United States of America (USA).

NBSK – Northern Bleached Softwood Kraft pulp. One of the main varieties of market pulp, produced from coniferous trees (ie spruce, pine) in Scandinavia, Canada and northern USA. The price of NBSK is a benchmark widely used in the pulp and paper industry for comparative purposes.

net debt – Current and non-current interest-bearing borrowings, and bank overdraft (net of cash, cash equivalents and short-term deposits).

newsprint – Paper produced for the printing of newspapers mainly from mechanical pulp and/or recycled waste paper.

NGO – Non-governmental organisation.

NPO – Non-profit organisation.

OHSAS – Is an international health and safety standard aimed at minimising occupational health and safety risks firstly, by conducting a variety of analyses and secondly, by setting standards.

packaging paper – Paper used for packaging purposes.

PAMSA – Paper Manufacturers’ Association of South Africa.

plantation – Large scale planted forests, intensively managed, highly productive and grown primarily for wood and fibre production.

PM – Paper machine.

power – The rate at which energy is used or produced.

printing and writing papers – A generic term for a group of papers intended for commercial printing use such as coated woodfree paper, coated mechanical paper, uncoated woodfree paper and newsprint.

Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification™ (PEFC™) – Is an international non-profit, non-governmental organisation dedicated to promoting sustainable forest management (SFM) through independent third-party certification. PEFC works by endorsing national forest certification systems and is represented in 49 countries through national organisations such as SFI® in North America.
(www.pefc.org)

pulpwood – Wood suitable for producing pulp―usually not of sufficient standard for sawmilling.

release paper – Based paper used in the production of making release liners, the backing paper for self-adhesive labels.

ROCE – Return on average capital employed. Operating profit excluding special items divided by average capital employed.

sackkraft – Kraft paper used to produce multi-wall paper sacks.

Sappi Biotech – The business unit within Sappi which drives innovation and commercialisation of biomaterials and biochemicals.

Sappi Dissolving Wood Pulp – The business unit within Sappi which oversees the production and marketing of dissolving wood pulp (DWP).

Sappi Europe (SEU) – The business unit within Sappi which oversees operations in the European region.

Sappi North America (SNA) – The business unit within Sappi which oversees operations in the North American region.

Sappi Southern Africa (SSA) – The business unit within Sappi which oversees operations in the Southern Africa region.

Scope 1 and 2 GHG emissions – The Greenhouse Gas Protocol defines Scope 1 (direct) and Scope 2 (indirect) emissions as follows:

  • Direct GHG emissions are emissions from sources that are owned or controlled by the reporting entity, and
  • Indirect GHG emissions are emissions from purchased electricity, steam, heat or cooling.

SETS – Social, ethics, transformation and sustainability.

silviculture costs – Growing and tending costs of trees in forestry operations.

solid waste – Dry organic and inorganic waste materials.

specialities and packaging papers – A generic term for a group of papers intended for commercial and industrial use such as flexible packaging, label papers, functional papers, containerboard, paperboard, silicone base papers, casting and release papers, dye sublimation papers, inkjet papers and tissue paper.

specific – When data is expressed in specific form, this means that the actual quantity consumed during the year indicated, whether energy, water, emissions or solid waste, is expressed in terms of a production parameter. For Sappi, as with other pulp and paper companies, this parameter is air dry tons of saleable product.

specific purchased energy – The term ‘specific’ indicates that the actual quantity during the year indicated, is expressed in terms of a production parameter. For Sappi, as with other pulp and paper companies, the parameter is air dry tons of product.

specific total energy (STE) – The energy intensity ratio defined by the total energy consumption in the context of the saleable production.

Sustainable Forestry Initiative® (SFI®) – Is a solutions oriented sustainability organisation that collaborates on forest- based conservation and community initiatives. The SFI forest management standard is the largest forestry certification standard within the PEFC™ program. (www.sfiprogram.org)

thermo-mechanical pulp – Pulp produced by processing woodfibres using heat and mechanical grinding or refining wood or woodchips.

ton – Term used in this report to denote a metric ton of 1,000 kg.

tons per annum (TPA) – Term used in this report to denote tons per annum (tons a year). Capacity figures in this report denote tons per annum at maximum continuous run rate.

total suspended solids (TSS) – Refers to matter suspended or dissolved in effluent.

uncoated woodfree paper – Printing and writing paper made from bleached chemical pulp used for general printing, photocopying and stationery, etc. Referred to as uncoated as it does not contain a layer of pigment to give it a coated surface.

United Nations Global Compact (UNGC) – A principle based framework for businesses, stating 10 principles in the areas of human rights, labour, environment and anti-corruption.

viscose staple fibre (VSF) – A natural fibre made from purified cellulose, primarily from dissolving wood pulp (DWP) that can be twisted to form yarn.

woodfree paper – Paper made from chemical pulp.

World Wildlife Fund (WWF) – The world’s largest conservation organisation, focused on supporting biological diversity.

Safety terminology key to graphs and terms used